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## Project Euler 6 Solution ## Project Euler 6: Find the difference between the sum of the squares and the square of the sum

#### Project Euler 6 Problem Description

Project Euler 6: The sum of the squares of the first ten natural numbers is,

1² + 2² + … + 10² = 385

The square of the sum of the first ten natural numbers is,

(1 + 2 + … + 10)² = 55² = 3025

Hence the difference between the sum of the squares of the first ten natural numbers and the square of the sum is 3025 − 385 = 2640.

Find the difference between the sum of the squares of the first one hundred natural numbers and the square of the sum.

#### Analysis

Solving this problem requires the knowledge of two established formulas:
1. The sum of the first n numbers (triangular numbers, used in Project Euler Problem 1): $\sum\limits_{i=1}^n i = \frac{n(n+1)}{2}$

2. The sum of the first n square numbers (square pyramidal numbers): $\sum\limits_{i=1}^n i^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$

For a visual example of square pyramidal numbers, imagine stacking cannon balls: We apply these formulas to our range [1,n] and find the difference. These formulas will come in useful for solving other problems.

Now, I guess for the purists one could perform the subtraction of these two summations and derive the following formula: $\frac{n(n-1)(n+1)(3n+2)}{12}$

Avoiding loops to solve these types of problems in favor of formulas and closed-form calculations becomes apparent with the more demanding hackerRank Project Euler 6 version. It requires you to solve up to 10,000 trials with a higher limit of n ≤ 10,000 in a fixed amount of time, typically less than a tenth of a second. This program and method
solves all test cases for
Project Euler 6 on HackerRank

#### Project Euler 6 Solution

Runs < 0.001 seconds in Python 2.7. Use this link to get the Project Euler 6 Solution Python 2.7 source.

#### Afterthoughts

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